The Working Principle Behind Solar Cell Panels Explained


The Working Principle Behind Solar Cell Panels Explained: A solar cell, commonly referred to as a photovoltaic cell or PV cell, is a type of electrical device that uses the photovoltaic effect to transform light energy into electrical energy.

The Working Principle Behind Solar Cell Panels Explained

A photoelectric cell is a type of device whose electrical properties, such as current, voltage, or resistance, change when exposed to light. Solar cells fall under this category.

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Solar cell panel, also known as modules or solar cells, are made up of individual solar cells. The maximum open-circuit voltage that a typical silicon single-junction solar cell can generate is between 0.5 and 0.6 volts. Significant amounts of renewable energy can be produced when solar cells are joined to form a huge solar panel.

Configuration of Solar Cell Panel

Although it has a somewhat different design from standard p-n junction diodes, a solar cell is fundamentally a junction diode. On top of a somewhat thicker n-type semiconductor, a very thin layer of the p-type semiconductor is formed. Next, we add a few smaller electrodes to the p-type semiconductor layer’s top.

These electrodes don’t prevent light from passing through the p-type layer. A p-n junction is located just beneath the p-type layer. A current-collecting electrode is additionally provided at the base of the n-type layer. To shield the solar cell from any mechanical disturbance, we encase the complete device in a thin glass shell.

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The Operation of a Solar Cell Panel

Light photons easily pass through the incredibly thin p-type layer at the p-n junction when it comes into contact with it. The photons from the light source give the junction enough energy to make many electron-hole pairs. The junction’s thermal equilibrium condition is broken by the incident light. The depletion region’s free electrons can move quickly to the junction’s n-type side.

Similar to the depletion, the p-type side of the junction can be readily reached by the holes. The barrier potential of the junction prevents newly produced free electrons from continuing to cross it once they reach the n-type side.

Similar to this, as they reach the p-type side of the junction, the freshly generated holes become subject to the same barrier potential as the junction. The p-n junction will act like a miniature battery cell as one side of the junction, the n-type side, experiences higher electron concentrations, and the other side, the p-type side, experiences higher hole concentrations. A voltage known as the photovoltage is put up. A minor current will flow across the junction if we attach a small load across it.

Components of a Solar Cell Panel

The band gap of the materials utilized for this must be close to 1.5 eV. Typical materials include:

  • Silicon
  • GaAs
  • CdTe
  • CuInSe2
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Standards for Solar Cell Materials

  • The band gap must range from 1 eV to 1.8 eV.
  • High optical absorbance is required.
  • It ought to carry electricity well.
  • Both the pricing and the availability of the raw material must be favorable.

Solar Generation Systems: Uses

  • Batteries can be charged with it
  • A component of light meters
  • It is used to power watches and calculators
  • It can be used to supply electrical energy to spacecraft


Since technology is growing, the cost of solar plates, as well as the installation cost, will fall so that anybody can attempt to install the system. Even if solar cells have some drawbacks, these drawbacks are predicted to be solved as the technology progresses.

Additionally, the government is placing a lot of focus on solar energy, so in a few years, we may anticipate that every home and every electrical system will be powered by solar or another renewable energy source.

While we’ve discussed all that you need to know about Solar panels, choosing a renowned brand like Luminous is also essential. Check out Luminous’ comprehensive selection of high-performance solar panels at reasonable costs.


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